Glossary - Metal containers

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Bail – A metal wire formed into a semi-circle to serve as a container handle.  The ends fit into the ears on a general line can.  Bails are common on lard and paint cans.
Bead (Inside or Internal) – A rounded depression around the surface of a container or end.  The bead is used to stiffen or improve its appearance.  The bead is also used to secure the collar on the can.  Outside or External – As above except convex rather than concave.

Body – The sidewall of a container.  The portion of a container to which the top and the bottom ends are attached by double seaming.  The cylinder-shaped part of a can.  Body can also refer to any shape.

Can Dimension – The dimensions of a container expressed in inches and 1/16 inches.  Example: 7 1" – 708 or 6 1/16" = 601
Chime – The expanded edge or rim of a barrel, pail, or drum.

Closure – The joint or seal made in attaching the cover to a can; as in double seaming.

Coating – A thin film of varnish, lacquer, or enamel applied to a can making plate by means of a roll coater.

Coating, Litho – Refers to a pigmented coating used in lithographic decorations as a ground or base coat for printing inks.

Coating, Protective – A coating, pigmented or non-pigmented, used to provide a non-reactive barrier between the can plate and product or atmosphere.

Coating, Tin – A thin layer of tin applied to sheet steel to form tinplate.

Compartment Can – A series of containers fabricated and assembled so the bottom end of one acts as a closure for the container below.

Composite Can – A can having a fibre body composed of a composite of paper with one or both ends made of metal.  The label and liner can be aluminum foil or plastic.

Cone Top – A tapered shape top generally used on the general line cans.  The cone top has the general shape of a frustrum of a cone.

Convolute – A paper can body term indicating paper wrapped straight in plies.  A laminated fibre container formed by winding material around a cylinder with material fed at right angles to the axis.

Corrosion – The deterioration of a metal by chemical or electrochemical reaction with its environment.

Cover – Loose end of an open top can, pail, or drum.

Double Seam – The attachment of an end to a can body by a method in which the thicknesses of the plate are interlocked or folded and pressed firmly together.  A joint formed by interlocking the edges of both the end and body of a can.  It is commonly produced in two operations.  The first operation roll forms the metal to produce the five thicknesses or folds.  The second operation roll flattens these to produce the tight seam.
Drum, Closed Head – Refers to the drum type steel container, one gallon capacity or more, supplied with the top and bottom ends seamed to the body.  Also called a tight-head drum.

Ears – Parts bumped or riveted to side of can into which a carrying bail is inserted.

Fittings – Any part other than the ends necessary to complete the closure of a can.  Fittings can be rings, plugs, screw necks or caps, and all spouts.
Friction Top Can – A can with a removable cover consisting of a plug which fits into a ring in top end of can.  The cover depends on friction fit to retain its position.  There are basically three types of friction to cans – full friction, single-friction and multi-friction.  Each gets its name from the number of points of contact between the lid and the can opening.

"F" Style Can – A rectangular base general line can fitted with a screw cap reclosure.  "F" style cans are made in several sizes for liquid measure.  "F" style originated as a designation for the "Flit" style can.

Liners, Cap – A gasket material inserted into a screw cap which serves to seal the closure against leakage of the container contents.
Lithography – A printing process, a branch of Planography, involving employment of stones or metal plates whose printing surfaces are partly water repellent and ink repellent.  The process is especially adapted to fine half tone color effects or smooth ink solids.

Lug Pail Cover – A type of cover commonly used on open and 5 gallon steel pails.  The pail cover is lined with puff type compound which seats on the top rim of the pail.  The seal is effected by compression of the cover to the pail.  The seal is maintained by clinching the lugs, an integral part of the cover, to the pail rim.

Matte Finish – An unmelted tin coating having a dull appearance.

Nesting – A can or pail is tapered so one fits into the other to conserve space when storing or shipping empty containers.

Oblong – Refers to the shape of a general line container where the top and bottom ends are rectangular in shape with rounded corners.  Oblongs are also called  "F" style can.
Open Top Can – A classification of round hermetically sealed cans with welded side seams and compound lined double seams.  Products packed in these containers are usually heat processed.

Pail – A flaring or tapered body metal container equipped with a bail or handle.  A variety of top closures are used.
Phenolic – (As in Hi-Bake phenolic lining) This is a synthetic phenolic resin baked on as a lining.  It provides a non-reactive barrier between the metal plates and atmosphere or one or more of various types of paints or chemical products.

Pigment – (As in pigmented lining)  This is inorganic material of various hues added to coatings on varnishes in order to color them

Side Seam – The seam joining the two edges of a blank to form a body.
Slip Cover – The removable cover in which the cover proper fits over and around the open end of can.  The position is retained by friction fit.

Spiral Can – A laminated fibre container formed by winding material around a cylinder at an angle to its axis.

Spiral Winding – A diagonal wrapping or paper plies in continuous operation.

Straight Sided Can (or Pail) – A round can or pail that has the same top and bottom diameter; a straight body metal container which must be stacked upon the top of another.

Tapered nesting pail – A flared or tapered body metal container formed  with a nesting ring which allows one container to be stacked within another.
Tin Plate – A steel plate,  can making quality black plate, to which a specified weight of pure tin is applied by an electrolytic or hot dip tinning process.